Posts Tagged ‘remembrance day’

Battle of Limeridge Monument

This monument, by Robert Reid, was unveiled on 1st July 1870.  It is located on the University of Toronto side of Queens Park Circle.

war memorial on a slight hill, grassy, in autum with yellow and orange leaves around, a white statue on top, with more statues (two) below.

Words on the plaque at the bottom of the memorial: “Canada erected this monument as a memorial to her brave sons the volunteers who fell at Limeridge or died from wounds received in action or from disease contracted in serve whilst defending her frontier in June 1866.”

The Battle of Limeridge (also known as the Battle of Ridgeway) was the first fight during what is known as the Fenian Raids.  It was fought near the village of Ridgeway which is across the Niagara River from Buffalo NY, close to Fort Erie.   It was the first time that a battle was fought by Canadian troops and led by a Canadian.  They lost the battle.   There were a few more skirmishes but the Fenians fled back across the Niagara River when British troops and Canadian reinforcements arrived a short time later.

The funds for the monument came from donations from the citizens of Toronto.  The Canadian government refused to recognize the Limeridge veterans until 1899.   The loss had been blamed on the frontline troops that panicked and broke even though they were out numbered, undersupplied and undertrained.  The officers in charge had been absolved.

close up of statues on monument

The Fenians were Irish-Americans, many of them veterans of the US Civil War which had just ended.  Their goal was to take Canada hostage to provoke a crisis in England that would lead to an independent Irish Republic.  At the time, Canada was still a British colony.

close up of statues on monument - soldier with missing arm, from the 1800s,

On June 2nd 1890, the Veterans of ’66 Association held a protest by this monument and they placed flowers around it.  The protest became an annual event.  June 2nd became known as “Decoration Day” as memorial to Canadians who died in the Battle of Limeridge as well as the Northwest Rebellion (1885), the South African War (Boer War) (1899-1902) as well as the Great War (WW1).  It wasn’t until 1931 that November 11th became Remembrance Day.

The passing of the Remembrance Day Act in 1931 removed the losses from the Fenian Raids and the Northwest Rebellion.  It is specifically for Canadian casualties overseas.

———–

Killed in action at Limeridge, June 2nd 1866
Queens Own Rifles
Ensign Malcom McEachren, No.5 Command
Lance Corporal Mark Defries, No.3 Command
Private Christopher Alderson No.7 Command
Private William Smith No.2 Command
Private Malcolm MacKenzie No.9 Command

Remembrance Day
the eleventh day of the eleventh month

November 11th at 11am in 1918 (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month)  was when an armistice was signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente.  Nov 11th became known Armistice Day, or in some countries such as Canada, Remembrance Day.  An armistice is an agreement to stop fighting, a truce in other words.  After this signing, it took several months of negotiations before the First World War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.  That treaty ended the war between Germany and the Allies.  (The Allies of WW1 were also known as the Entente Powers while Germany and her allies were known as the Central Powers)

The poppy became a symbol of Remembrance day, and a symbol in remembrance of soldiers who died fighting in all wars, after the publication of the poem ‘In Flanders Fields’ in 1915.  This popular and often quoted poem was written by Canadian Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae.  In it he talks about the poppies that grew in the battlefields at Flanders Belgium during WW1.

“In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,”

Many Remembrance day poppies lie on the grass in front of the cenotaph in front of old City Hall. In the background is a small Canadian flag as well as a few wreaths that have been laid in front of the cenotaph.

below: The cenotaph (war memorial) in front of Old City Hall was unveiled on 11 Nov 1925 to commemorate those Torontonians who died in WW1.  Since then, it has been expanded to include those who lost their lives in WW2 and in the Korean War.  The word cenotaph comes from the Greek and translates as ’empty tomb’. This style of memorial has been used widely for commemorating someone, or some group, whose remains are interred elsewhere.

More than 6000 Torontonians lost their lives in these three conflicts.  Close to three thousand men died in World War 1, a number that represents about 2% of the male population of the time. (1)

The cenotaph in front of Old City Hall in Toronto, with a collection of wreaths that have been laid at the bottom of it.

In the middle of University Avenue is a statue erected by the Toronto District of the Sons of England Benefit Society in memory of their members who died in World War 1.  Founded in 1876, this society provided insurance to its members who were in need because of illness or accident.

In 1914 Canada was still part of the British Empire.  As a result, when Britain found itself at war in August of that year, Canada too was involved.

statue and memorial at University and Elm streets.

below: At the base of the center lion is a small plaque that reads: “Chas Adamson, sculptor, 1923”.

A carving of a lion in granite. It is at the base of a sculpture. A small brass plate is attached in front of the lion and it says Chas Adamson, sculptor 1923

below: The Sons of England building on the NW corner of Richmond St. East and Berti St., 1922

historical picture of Richmond Street near Berti, taken in 1922, old buildings, a, horse drawn cart and an old car. Streets but no traffic. black and white photo.

photo credit: Toronto public library website

 

Another memorial in this city is the Ontario Veterans Memorial.  This is a 30m long granite wall in front of Queens Park dedicated to all the men and women from Ontario who served in the military.  Etched into the granite are scenes depicting Canadians in military roles between the time of the Fenian Raids in 1867 to the present day.

below: Part of the granite wall.  The red in the picture is a reflection of the red carpet that was laid in front of the memorial for the Remembrance Day service.
An etching of men running across a battlefield with rifles at the ready.

below: part of the granite wall

part of a war memorial showing the wars written on it

Transcription of the passage by Canadian author Jane Urquhart:
One by one they left behind the bright fields of innocence and stepped into the darkness of experience
Their brave departure was discrete* and humble.
Un à un, ils ont quitté les champs illuminés de l’innocence pour se plonger dans la noirceur de
i’expérience. Ils ont quitté avec courage, discrétion et humilité
Some do not return. Their absence is as big as sorrow, as wide as grief.
Certains ne reviennent jamais. Leur absence laisse un vide aussi béant que le chagrin,
aussi vaste que le deuil.
The returning walk back toward their northern homeland. Their faces are shadowed,
but they are carrying illumination in their arms.
Ceux qui reviennent marchent vers leur terre nordique. Leurs visages sont dans l’ombre
mais ils portent la lumière dans leurs bras.  

(* discrete vs discreet ?)

below: Some of the wreaths laid at the Ontario Veterans Memorial on Remembrance Day.

wreaths in front of the granite wall of the Ontario Veterans Memorial

A bouquet of flowers, red roses, plus some white and blue flowers in front of a war memorial. An etching of three men in uniform, part of the memorial, is in the background.

 

below: Although it is not a war memorial per se, someone left a small poppy wreath by this plaque at Nathan Phillips Square.  The plaque is by the arches over the pool, the freedom arches.

blog_poppies_freedom_arches

Transcription of the plaque: Freedom Arches. The citizens of Toronto dedicate these arches to the millions who struggled, including Canadians, to gain and defend freedom and to the tens of millions who suffered and died for the lack of it. May all that we do be worthy of them. Only in freedom can the Human Spirit soar. Against the Human drive for freedom nothing can long succeed. This plaque is mounted on a slab of the Berlin Wall.

below: The 3D Toronto sign was red on Remembrance Day.

A remembrance day poppy is in the foreground. It is being held up in front of the 3D toronto sign which has been lit in red for Remembrance Day

We remember collectively as a nation, as a community. We also remember privately, as individuals, as families.  Countless small memorials can be found around Toronto including in schools, in churches and other religious institutions, and in cemeteries.

below: A memorial to the 48th Highlanders, Mount Pleasant cemetery.  In memory of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men who have served with the 48th Highlanders.

Tall pinkish granite memorial to the 48th Highlanders in Mt Pleasant cemetery.

symbol, in metal, found on the memorial to the 48th Highlanders.

Dileas Gu Brath, their motto, is gaelic for ‘faithful forever’

below:  Quiet memorials

poppy wreath beside a tombstone in a cemetery

A small Canadian flag with two poppies pinned to it. The flag is inserted into the ground in front of a tombstone in a cemetery. The stone is a veterans stone, with air force insignia at the top and a cross at the bottom. In the middle is the information for the pilot who died during the war.

 

(1) source: Patrick Cain, Global News